Chapter Six

The Authorities of the State

Article 44:

The Authorities of the State consist of:
  • The Judicial Authority
  • The Executive Authority
  • The Regulatory Authority
These authorities will cooperate in the performance of their functions, according to this Law or other laws. The King is the ultimate arbiter for these Authorities.

Article 45:

The Holy Quran and the Sunna(Tradition) of God's Messenger shall be the source for fetwas(religious advisory rulings). The Law shall specify hierarchical organization for the composition of the Council of the Senior Ulema, the Research Administration and the Office of the Mufti, together with their functions.

Article 46:

The Judiciary is an independent authority. The decisions of judges shall not be subject to any authority other than the authority of the Islamic Sharia.

Article 47:

All people, either citizens or residents in the Kingdom, are entitled to file suit on an equal basis. The Law shall specify procedures for this purpose.

Article 48:

The Courts shall apply rules of the Islamic Sharia in cases that are brought before them, according to the Holy Quran and the Sunna, and according to laws which are decreed by the ruler in agreement with Holy Quran and the Sunna.

Article 49:

Courts are empowered to arbitrate in all disputes and crimes, taking into account the provisions of Article 53 of this Law.

Article 50:

The King or whomsoever he may deputize shall concern himself with the implementation of judicial rulings.

Article 51:

The Law shall specify the composition of the Supreme Judiciary Council and its functions, as well as the hierarchy for the courts and their functions.

Article 52:

Judges shall be appointed and relieved by Royal Decree, based on a proposal of the Supreme Judiciary Council, in accordance with provisions of the Law.

Article 53:

The Law shall specify the hierarchy of the Board of Grievances and its functions.

Article 54:

The Law shall specify the relationship between the Commission of Inquiry and the Attorney General and their organization and functions.

Article 55:

The King shall rule the nation according to the Sharia. He shall also supervise the implementation of the Sharia, the general policy of the State and the defense and protection of the country.

Article 56:

The King is the Prime Minister. Members of the Council of Ministers shall assist him in the performance of his mission according to the provisions of this law and other laws. The Council of Ministers Law shall specify the powers of the Council in respect of internal and external affairs, organization of governmental departments and their coordination. In addition, the Law shall specify the qualifications and the powers of the ministers, ministerial accountability procedures and all matters pertaining to the ministers. The Law of the Council of Ministers and the areas of their authority may be amended according to this Law.

Article 57:

  1. The King shall appoint and relieve deputies of the Prime Minister and member ministers of the Council by Royal Decree.
  2. Deputies of the Prime Minister and member ministers of the Council shall be jointly responsible to the King for the implementation of the Sharia, laws and the general policy of the State.
  3. The King is entitled to dissolve and reconstitute the Council of Ministers.

Article 58:

The King shall appoint those who are at the rank of ministers and deputy ministers, and those who are at the highest grade and relieve them by a Royal Decree as provided by the Law. Ministers and heads of independent departments shall be answerable to the King in respect of the ministries and agencies they head.

Article 59:

The Law shall specify the rules of the Civil Service, including salaries, awards, compensations, privileges and pensions.

Article 60:

The King is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. He shall appoint and dismiss officers from service, as provided by terms of the Law.

Article 61:

The King shall announce any state of emergency or general mobilization and shall declare war. The Law shall specify rules for this purpose.

Article 62:

If an imminent danger is threatening the safety of the Kingdom, the integrity of its territories or the security and interests of its people, or is impeding the functions of official organizations, the King may take urgent measures to deal with such a danger. When he considers that these measures should continue, necessary arrangements shall be made in accordance with the Law.

Article 63:

The King shall receive kings and heads of states, appoint his representatives to other states, and receive credentials of other states' representatives accredited to him.

Article 64:

The King shall award medals according to provisions of the law.

Article 65:

The King may delegate some powers of authority to the Crown Prince by Royal Decree.

Article 66:

Should the King happen to travel abroad, he shall issue a Royal Decree to deputize the Crown Prince to manage the affairs of State and look after the interests of the people, as set out in the Royal Decree.

Article 67:

The Regulatory Authority shall be concerned with the making of laws and regulations which will safeguard all interests, and remove evil from the state's affairs, according to Sharia. Its powers shall be exercised according to provisions of this Law and the Law of the Council of Ministers and the Law of the Shura Council.

Article 68:

The Shura Council shall be established. Its Law shall specify the details of its formation, powers and selection of members. The King may dissolve and reconstitute the Shura Council.

Article 69:

The King may summon the Shura Council and the Council of Ministers for a joint session. He may summon others whom he deems necessary to attend the meeting and discuss whatever affairs he considers fit.

Article 70:

Laws, international agreements, treaties and concessions shall be approved and amended by Royal Decrees.

Article 71:

Laws shall be published in the Official Gazette, and implemented effective from the date of publication, unless another date is specified.